3rd November 1861


About ten o’clock in the morning last Sunday, a woman was seen, by two boys, loitering under an arch on a piece of waste ground close to St Peter’s Church, Saffron-hill, with apparently a bundle of rags in her arms. She left the bundle on the ground and made off.

The boys went to the arch and saw a black parcel tied up with rope. On examining it, they found it to contain the body of a child.

Dr Brown, attached to the Clerkenwell workhouse, found the death of the child had been produced by putting its head in water until suffocated by drowning and then, to make doubly sure, the skull was forcibly fractured.

No fresh evidence has been produced.


On Tuesday morning, a female named Mahoney found the dead body of a female child in a small wicker basket which was lying in a dust-bin in front of houses situation it Dalston-square, Storer-street, Mile-end. When she opened the lid she found that the deceased had been recently born.

The body was removed to the workhouse, where one of the men in the dead-house unfastened the bandages around the waist and found a slip of paper stained with blood, upon which was written, “Mrs Clark, 1 Little Drummond-street, Euston-square”. Upon the lower portion of the paper there the following disconnected sentences: “See to parcel No 5” and “Front west flowers”.

A constable proceeded to the address, where it was discovered that a man and a woman named Clark had lodged there, but had gone away about a month.


A female child, newly born, was found in a cigar box, under very strange circumstances. On Thursday last, a workman was engaged in gardening in the Tower Hamlets Cemetery when he discovered a box lying in the grass, covered with leaves. The box was quite clean, and tied round with a piece of cord. He opened the lid and found the child.

The deceased was fully developed. The umbilical cord was not tied, and it appeared that the child had been born alive. There were marks from pressure around the mouth and nose.


On Tuesday, some workmen who had occasion to enter a house in West-street, Horsham, head the plaintive screams of a child coming from the water-closet. On looking down the aperture they discovered a fine full-grown female infant lying on the soil at a depth of twenty feet. With some difficulty they rescued it from its fearful position, yet alive, but at the last gasp.

The poor little thing, who had thus been so miraculously preserved from death, was taken to the work-house, and an investigation was set on foot by the police, which has resulted in the capture of a young woman, who will be charged with the attempted murder.

27th October 1861


On Wednesday morning, between four and five o’clock, a woman named Anne King, 25, was found smothered in a cellar of soot, at 10 Parker-street, Drury-lane, which is occupied by a sweep.

It appears that on the previous day the deceased had attended bridal festivities in Parker-street and had drunk somewhat freely. The deceased on leaving promised to return to tea, and it is supposed on coming back she mistook the house and pitched headlong into the cellar of number 10, landing head-first in the large mound of soot. She had been dead for some time when found.


The following case of brutality was heard at the Clerkenwell police-court on Thursday:

William Down, a rough, dirty-looking fellow, a shoe-maker, residing at 4, Rose and Crown court, Islington, was charged with committing a murderous assault upon Mrs Betsy Ayres, a charwoman. The prosecutrix appeared in court in a sad state. Her head was enveloped in surgical bandages, her face and arms were blackened, bruised and cut.

On the day in question, the prisoner was married and, at the request of Betsy Ayres, who had been a bridesmaid, he and his bride went to her house to spend the day. A great deal of drink was taken by all the parties, and in the afternoon a quarrel took place.

Betsy Ayres continued to abuse William Down, when he got up, struck her over the head and body with a board, knocked her down, and rendered her insensible. Not content with this violence, he took up a poker and with a fearful oath he struck her across the face with such force that he bent the poker.

The prisoner was in a high state of excitement. Had it not been for the interference of the neighbours there is no doubt he would have killed the complainant.

Instead of being one of the happiest of men, enjoying the company of his youthful and blushing bride, he is now one of the sorriest and saddest. Upon being sentenced to six months’ hard labour in the House of Correction, the prisoner commenced dancing, and was then removed.


A somewhat unusual scene occurred on Sunday morning last at Leeds parish church when a man named James Grayson, a painter by trade, accompanied by a female, who hoped shortly to be his bride, and also by a bridesmaid and others, presented himself for marriage.

The ceremony had proceeded undisturbed until the reverend gentleman was on the point of asking the all-important question, “Wilt thou have this woman” &c, when the congregation were surprised, if not amazed, to observe a pretty looking woman, in breathless, haste, and with anxiety depicted on her countenance, rushing into the church and to the altar rails, where she claimed the man about to be united to another as her husband.

The ceremony was, of course, suspended immediately, and an adjournment to the vestry was necessary. There, with the greatest possible coolness and determination, the fellow entirely repudiated the impeachment, and gruffly declared that he had never seen the woman before.

Naturally shocked at this, the wife replied that they had lived together until 8 o’clock on the previous evening, when he left her, taking with him a box containing various articles and representing that he was about to pay a visit to his friends. Still, however, he persistently denied that he was married, and the female, in confirmation of her story, called the parson’s recollection to the fact that he himself officiated at the marriage upwards of two years ago. The register having been examined, an entry of the marriage of the female with Grayson in May, 1859, was found but he even then denied, without a blush or a stammer, that he was the man.

The father of the wife was sent for, and confirmed his daughter’s statement. They were married in that church, he said, and had lived together very comfortably since, and the husband had never been away a single night until the day before.

The “bride”, satisfied that she had been the victim of a deceit, declared that she was “flurried a bit”—as well she might be—and thought she had better go. Her friends, pitying her, accompanied her, and Grayson and his wife were left behind in the vestry. When concealment was no longer possible, he acknowledged his wife, asked where she was going, said he had had no breakfast, and he would go with her. They then left the church together, apparently on the most amicable terms, and walked homewards to their matitutinal meal.

20th October 1861


Dr Andrew Dell, a physician, was passing through Crawley-street on Monday when he was caught by the leg in a lady’s crinoline as the wearer was passing, thrown to the ground, and his ankle-bone fractured.

An old pensioner named Mann, seventy-one years of age, was proceeding along King-street, Yarmouth, when a lady amply crinolined passed him very hastily and her dress catching his leg knocked him down and broke his leg in two places. The “lady” proceeded onwards without offering sympathy for the unfortunate man.


The matter of the wearing of crinolines becomes ever more serious. It would be a public service if somebody would publish a list of the known casualties from this cause. Besides the deaths by fire, there have been many by crushing under carriage wheels and in machinery and in narrow spaces where a woman reasonably dressed would be in no danger. There have been cases of actual disembowelling from the gashes inflicted by broken steel springs and hoops. There have been drownings, wounds, crushings, burnings—many torturing modes of death; and it is no wonder that juries and coroners now appeal to the sex to cease their subornation of murder.

How is it to be done? some ask. We are told our country-women are apt to follow a fashion abjectly because they have a horror of appearing independent in their judgment about external appearances and of earning the name of being “strong-minded women”. Has it never occurred to them what dreadful strength of mind it must require to uphold a fashion which will inevitably cause the death by torture of a certain number of persons before the end of the year?

We are told that the imaginations of women are too strong for their judgment; and that they are carried away by an idea. We should say rather that it is from defect of imagination that they err in this case. If they could once see a girl in the agonies of burning, and hear her shrieks; if they could once encounter the little procession carrying a child to the hospital, his back broken by a lady’s petticoat having swept him under the wheels of a dray; if they could see a factory worker caught by the skirt, and crushed before the shaft could be stopped, they would gladly wear any shape of gown for the rest of their days rather than be responsible in the millionth degree for any more such intolerable spectacles.

Who will introduce a change in the habits of women? Surely we may look for this to the first lady in the land. If the Queen were known to discountenance the fashion of hoops which renders it all too easy to set women and children on fire, the evil would immediately disappear from our drawing rooms, our streets and our places of work.

13th October 1861


A fishmonger at Preston last week gave a lecture in the theatre on “Oysters”. Being an wholly uneducated man the lecture promised great fun and the crowded audience was not disappointed. He had little else to say except that oysters were “the strongest thing a man could eat,” and they were to be sure and get them fresh and not take vinegar with them. The scene was of the most ludicrous and boisterous description.


 • Mr Isaac Moses, a Jew of immense wealth, committed suicide last week by cutting his throat in the garden of an inn.

 • A member of the 3rd Roxburghshire Rifle Corps named Maxwell was returning from practice, near Melrose, when he met a girl named Rutherford, to whom he playfully raised his musket and drew the trigger, believing the deadly instrument to be unloaded. The shot entered the poor girls mouth, shattered some of her teeth, and passed through the cheek below the ear. It is hoped that she will recover.

 • No little excitement has been created at Stratford New-Town from the fact of a married man eloping with a married lady. The parties were traced to Norwich. During the past week, an effigy of the man has been paraded through the streets, preceded by a band, and followed by hundreds of persons. The excitement still prevails.


On Wednesday evening an inquest was held by Mr Brent, at the Castle Tavern, Holloway-road, on the body of Miss Ann Maria Amelia Carter, aged 25, who lost her life by fire through the ignition of her dress by extended crinoline.

It appeared that about three o’clock on Sunday afternoon, October 6, Mr French, an invalid, was lying on a sofa in the room, when the deceased entered and stood with her back towards the fire. Suddenly she uttered a piercing scream, when the invalid gentleman saw the back of her dress in flames. She then threw herself upon the ground, and he endeavoured to suppress the flames, but his efforts were fruitless.

He then ran into an adjoining bed-room for the purpose of getting something in which to envelope the unfortunate young lady, but, unfortunately, before he could return to her she had run down two pairs of stairs.

Her father, mother, and brother then attempted to extinguish the fire, which had by that time nearly consumed the muslin dress, which was set out with extensive hoops. Each of those relatives, as well as Mr French, in their attempts were severely burned

The poor young lady’s back, neck, face, and arms were most seriously burned, the latter almost to a cinder. She lingered in a state of suffering till two o’clock on the following morning, when she died.

The Jury returned a verdict of accidental death, but strongly recommended that, from the numerous fatalities which had occurred in all classes of female society, such a fashion should be immediately abandoned. The Coroner agreed with the Jury, and thought that, at least in the house, such acquirements of dress might be dispensed with.

6th October 1861


On Sunday, a man’s skull was discovered about two feet from the surface, in a bank beside the Keltie Burn, about a mile above Callander-bridge. There were many rumours regarding it until Wednesday, when the procurator-fiscal from Dunblane got it dug up, and declared it to be the remains of a person named Green Colin, who was in olden times chief of the clan called the Bochastle Clan, and must have lain there for nearly two hundred years.

The story relating to the chief’s death says he went to Auchlishia and demanded to see the titles of the possessor, Mr Buchanan. The latter said he would show them, and in an instant got up and took down a large two-edged sword hanging from the roof, and said that was his title. The next demand of the chief was to get it into his possession, but Buchanan cleaved him to the ground with it by a stroke on the side of the head.

The rut from the blow can be seen on the skull, which has been taken to the Edinburgh museum.


At Stafford, on Sunday morning, a party of from thirty to forty lunatics were, as usual, taken for a walk by the keepers of the county asylum, along the Weston-road. Whilst the party were passing through the Littleworth toll-gate, one of the lunatics got into the house, the door of which he immediately locked. Finding himself alone in the house with the wife of the toll collector and two little children, he went to the fire-place and caught up the tongs, intending to murder the children.

The keepers, whose attention had been called to what had occurred by the screams of the wife of the toll collector, burst in and, seizing the madman, removed him to the asylum.


On Thursday evening, an inquiry was held into the death of a child ten months old, named Mary Ann Western, whose parents reside at 30, Charles-street, Edgware-road.

William Western, the father, deposed that he was a wheelwright, and on his return home from work on the night of the 23rd inst, at about eleven o’clock, his attention was attracted to the child, who was head downwards in a pail of water by the bed, dead. His wife and another child were asleep in the bed.

Mr Jeffs, surgeon, deposed that on a post-mortem examination, he did not find any of the usual symptoms of drowning, and believed the child was dead before it got into the pail, most probably from convulsions, yet he did not see how the child could have rolled from the bed into the pail.

Other evidence mainly went to prove that the mother was not sober; that the child always appeared healthy; and that no one in the family, the mother included, was aware of what had occurred until awoken by the cries of the father.

Verdict, “Death from Natural Causes, but how the child got into the pail there is no evidence to prove.”

The learned deputy-coroner then severely reprimanded the mother for drunkenness, and the strange proceedings were brought to a close.


An inquest was held on Monday last on the body of Mrs Harriet Beagley, wife of Mr G Beagley, of the Crown inn, Spital, near Windsor, whose death was caused through her crinoline coming in contact with a burning ember while she was putting some greens in the pot to boil. Deceased was twenty-nine years of age, and had been married only seven weeks.

The deceased was extensively burnt all over the body, her clothes reduced to cinders, except the band of her petticoat, her stays and the frame of her crinoline.

Verdict, “Accidental death.”

29th September 1861


A Mr Johnstone, residing in Newcastle-under-Lyne, lately met his daughter walking with a young man whom he had forbidden her to associate with. He ordered her into the house, went in himself, and immediately returning with a poker, dealt a blow that knocked the young man to the ground. Upon examination, the young man proved to be a stranger and, what is worse, he died of the blow; and Mr Johnstone is now in gaol to answer for his crime.


John Tucker, a dirty, bald-headed old man, who was described as a jobbing porter in Spitalfields market, was charged with committing indecent assaults on two girls, named Ellen Thompson and Emily Wooton, each aged eleven years.

The case was one of a most revolting description. The prisoner was dwelling in a small, ill-ventilated and filthy room in Cable-street, Whitechapel. The girls live with their parents in Mansion-street, St-George’s-in-the-East, where the prisoner formerly dwelt. On Tuesday the 10th inst, the prisoner decoyed the two girls into his apartment in Cable-street, by promising them halfpence, and then laid them on his bed, and committed the vile assaults.

The illness of the children was subsequently discovered by their parents, and on Monday they underwent an examination by Dr Edmunds, who discovered they had been seriously injured.

The prisoner was immediately given into custody, and it was ascertained that the old villain was labouring under a loathsome disease. The medical evidence against the prisoner was conclusive as to his disgraceful intercourse with the girls, and the injury he had done them.

From the evidence of Police-constable Kelly, 130H, it also appeared that the prisoner had contaminated many other little girls, and that he was one of the most wicked old men in the district.

It was also stated by a woman named Wood that fifteen months ago he outrageously assaulted an orphan girl, only ten years of age, in the same house, and that Mr Wood, her husband, was so disgusted with the atrocious conduct of the prisoner that he inflicted a severe beating upon him. The prisoner suffered from this treatment for a considerable time, but it did not cure him of his evil propensities.

The prisoner made a very long and rambling defence, imputing every species of immorality to the girls.

Mr Woolrych committed the prisoner for trial.


The discharged soldier, Joseph Seers, who is in custody, charged, on his own confession, with the murder of the young girl, Sarah Watts, at the Woodlands, Frome, in the month of August, 1851, under circumstances of great atrocity [see last week’s report—ed.], was found to be not guilty of the crime. It has transpired that he was not resident in the locality at the time of the murder.

Investigations have revealed that, while with his regiment at Corfu, he became insane, chiefly through his intemperate habits, and was sent to the military lunatic asylum at Fort Pitt, Chatham, from where he has only recently been discharged as incurable, after twice attempting suicide.

22nd September 1861


A correspondent sends us an account of a crinoline accident. He says that last Sunday a party of boys and girls went on a pleasure boat to some public gardens in his locality. On the grounds in question there are several hives of bees, and in stooping in the vicinity of these, one of the girls’ crinolines hooked over the top of a hive, and when the poor girl, ignorant of the fact, walked away, down came the hive, of course. The whole corps d’arme, trapped within the crinolines, instantly set upon their unwitting assailant, who was obliged to run for it and eventually to take refuge in a pool of water. From thence she was drawn and, being badly stung, she was taken home to bed, where she lay in some pain for a few days. Our correspondent says she is now quite recovered.


In August, 1851, a girl of sixteen, named Sarah Watts, was barbarously murdered at Woodlands, near Frome. Her father had left her at home alone, while he went to market, and on his return he found her mangled body in the dairy, and the house ransacked. Subsequent examination showed that the girl had been outraged and probably drowned in a milk pail. Three bad characters, named Maggs, Sparrow and “Frome Bob”, were apprehended and were committed to trial on a capital charge, but a jury acquitted them.

Suspicion also fell on a young man named Joseph Seer, who lived near the Woodlands, but shortly after the murder he left the neighbourhood, and enlisted into the army.

Within the last few days, Seer has returned to Frome, being invalided. On Tuesday morning, he went to the police station on some other business and, upon being asked by the superintendent of the police why he appeared so unhappy, he made a voluntary confession that he was guilty of murdering Sarah Watts.

He is short in stature and was attired in the uniform of an infantry soldier. His appearance was that of a sullen, pre-occupied man.

The prisoner’s confession was as follows:

“I murdered Sarah Watts. I hope the God above will let me live to see her again in another world. I have it on my mind a long time. I have been very unhappy ever since. I went away, I was so unhappy. I hope the God above will wash away our sins.

“I done it for love. It was on a market day in August it happened. I asked her to go up Birch Hill-lane and pick some water-cresses. She wouldn’t go. I asked her then to go upon a Sunday, and she said she wouldn’t go. I often played with her.

“About 3 o’clock in the afternoon, I went to the house. I thought she was worth some money and I told her to tell me where it was and I would marry her and take her to America. I was very fond of her. I wanted that we would live happy together.

“She said, ‘The money don’t belong to you.’ I said, ‘If you don’t tell me where it is, it will be the death of you.’

“I took hold of her by the neck. I had connection with her on the settle. I had a poker in my hand and I hit her on the head with it and knocked her down. I said, ‘I will have to suffer for this either in heaven or in hell.’

“I struck her in the kitchen and dragged her into the dairy. I caught hold of her by her feet and put her head first into the milk pail and left her in the dairy, dead.

“I took two shillings out of a cup on the mantelpiece. I went up-stairs and searched about, and took some clothes, and went my way, and went to sea. I enlisted as a soldier to get out of the way, as I was being blamed for it at the time.

“I have never got it off my mind. I killed her for love. I was very fond of her.”

The prisoner was remanded for a week.

15th September 1861


A boy was suffocated on Friday week in Wiltshire, through a whole onion sticking in his throat.


A poor child named Stevens, only eight years old, and son of a circus proprietor, was burnt to death at Leicester last week. Whilst acting the part of a monkey in a piece entitled, “The Monkey and the Indians”, for which purpose he was dressed in wadding and a flax imitation of hair, he had to climb a rope, but he ascended too high and the material took fire from the chandelier. The poor boy was instantly one mass of flame. He fell to the ground, so severely burnt that he died the next day.


On Thursday afternoon, Phoebe Browning, of Cold-harbour, Canterbury, was charged with having strangled her child, Thomas Browning. Susannah Collard, wife of John Collard, said:

“Yesterday afternoon I saw the prisoner on the high road by Wingate-hill with a baby in her arms. The child’s legs were hanging down more like those of a dead than a live child. They were very much emaciated, and exposed to view. I asked her what was the matter with the baby. She made no reply. I said, “Then I will look at it, as the poor little thing is dying, I know.” She answered immediately, ‘Oh no it is not, for the doctor says it will never die.’

“I said to her, ‘If Superintendent Walker was to come along I would make him take you and the child.’ She replied, ‘If I was to see Superintendent Walker come along, I would murder the child at once.’

“I left her and went a little way, but I did not like to leave the woman with the baby. I went back and tried to take the baby from her, when she ran to the corner of the lane close by, and sat down in the hedge.

“I went up to her and said I would take the baby home. She said, ‘I will kill it before you or anybody else shall have it,’ and immediately squeezed the throat of the child with her hands, and it was only with difficulty that I got the child from her. The child’s eyes were ready to bolt out of its head, and it appeared to be in a dying state.

“When I had got possession of the child, the woman ran off in the direction of Boughton.

“I brought the child into Canterbury, and took it to Mr Tassell, a surgeon, who gave it some medicine. It died this morning, shortly before noon.”

A certificate from the medical officer said: “Phoebe Browning is affected with mental imbecility. She requires a person to take care of her, her husband being anxious to go hopping.”

The prisoner was remanded.

8th September 1861


We are sorry to hear that another of those fearful accidents, of which fire and crinoline are the conjoint causes, occurred at Penton-place, Walworth, on Monday.

The sufferer was an accomplished and excellent young lady, Miss Allan. On Monday morning, she sustained agonizing and fatal injuries from her dress catching the flames while she was taking some article from an upper shelf of the cupboard near the kitchen fire. Her uncle, alarmed by her shrieks, rushed to her assistance, and found her standing upright, a pillar of fire, the flame of which reached up to the ceiling. He was himself, we regret to say, severely burnt in attempting to save his unfortunate niece, who survived, in a state of partial consciousness, until midnight, not unaware of her dying condition, nor unable to speak.

An amiable, intelligent and pious young lady has thus been added to the number of the victims of a style of attire which should never have been adopted.


A curious yet painful case happened during the past week in Taunton. The daughter of a tradesman had been ill for some time, and death was hourly expected. At length, to all appearance, the fatal moment came, and the spirit was supposed to have winged its flight. The necessary offices for the dead were then performed; the body was laid out and the shutters of the shop were closed.

In an hour afterwards, to the consternation and joy of her friends, re-animation took place, and the supposed dead was able to speak. The shutters were again taken down, but we regret to state that, after the lapse of a few hours, they were again put up, the sufferer having gradually sunk, until death in reality terminated her existence.


An inquest was held on Tuesday evening in Charing-cross Hospital, touching the death of a private in the 2nd battalion of Grenadier Guards, named James Hutchins.

John Simpson, a private in the same battalion, said that about ten minutes to one o’clock on the previous afternoon he was coming out of the barrack-room on the third floor of the barracks, when he observed the deceased quite outside the window, with the exception of the left foot, and before he could stop him he had got quite out and turned to the left of the parapet. He looked out after him, and found that he had fallen. He ran down and saw him impaled on the railings, the spike entering his stomach and protruding about four inches out of his back. The head and upper part of the body were hanging over one side of the barrack wall, and the lower extremities on the other. A ladder was got and he was removed, but he died later from his injuries. One of the men picked up the deceased’s gall bladder in the area.

The witness had seen the deceased only five minutes before, and believed him to be quite sober.

George Bird, also in the same battalion, said he was on sentry, and hearing a noise he looked up and saw the deceased try to clutch at the parapet ledge. This he failed in, and came straight down upon the spikes.

An officer of the regiment informed the coroner that one or two men had informed him that the deceased would often climb out of one window and pass along the parapet to the other, and that he considered it a feat of Blondin. He had been heard to say that he could not see why he could not do such feats as well as that French acrobat, who was recently seen at the Crystal Palace.

The jury returned a verdict of accidental death through injuries caused by falling from the parapet.

1st September 1861


The interesting Italian, named Vincent Collucci, and described as an “artist”, was again brought up this week and charged with defrauding a young English lady of £1,900, under pretence of restoring to her certain letters which she had written under the influence of misplaced affection towards himself.

As the case stands adjourned, we have no desire at present to comment upon it adversely to the prisoner; but we will simply remark that if young English ladies, with thousands of pounds to spare, choose to hold their heads too high for honest Englishmen, and prefer the courtship of questionable foreign “artists”, it only serves the silly, supercilious females perfectly right if their cases be published as warnings to the other weak-headed and wealthy of their countrywomen.


Last Friday night a soldier named Grant, of the 12th Regiment, approached a loose female named Louisa Smith, and a quarrel ensued. In the excess of her passion, the woman seized a brown stone jug, and struck the soldier full in the face, literally battering his face in. The police arrived, who took the woman in charge. The soldier was instantly conveyed to the hospital, bleeding fearfully, where he remains in a dangerous condition.


Catherine Leary, aged 81, who was called “the old woman”, was brought up on remand and charged with cutting and wounding John Sullivan. It appeared the parties live in an Irish colony in Poplar, and a few nights since there was a row between factions there. A woman named Barry was struck on the abdomen with a stone and seriously injured. Several broken heads were also exhibited, and a woman named Lyons was, to use her own words, “kilt and murthered” by a stone which struck her on the jaw.

After the row was nearly over, Mrs Leary, who was in her own dwelling, called out to Sullivan, “Here, Jack. I want you. Come in here and I’ll talk to you like a Dutch uncle.” The unfortunate man reluctantly entered the house and Mrs Leary immediately cut him down with a chopper. He received two severe cuts on the head, and contusions. He was taken to hospital and has been ever since under medical treatment. He appeared in court with large surgical plasters on his head.

Stephen Barry confirmed Sullivan’s statement, and said he heard the complainant call out “blue murder” when he was struck. Mr Woolrych asked, “Blue murder? What do you mean by that?” The witness replied, “Shure, I don’t know; but she was murthering him wid the chopper.”

Mr Woolrych said the prisoner had nearly killed the man and it was a wonder she had not done so. There was no doubt upon his mind that the prisoner was a violent and dangerous woman. He fined her 40s and, in default, sentenced her to one month’s imprisonment.